The ancient village of Dozza (Dòza in Romagna) and the nearby Toscanella (La Tuscanèla) make up this territory surrounded by the first gentle slopes of the Apennines. The medieval village, surmounted by the majestic Sforza fortress, owes its name to the medieval Ducia or Dutia, ie a shower, a pipeline that carries water. The term also refers to an ancient aqueduct, now disappeared, capable of accumulating water from the Monte del Re in a cistern, to cope with the chronic lack of it.
The territory of Dozza, already inhabited in Celtic and Roman times, was hit by the invasions of Germanic and Longobardic barbarian populations, who invaded all the lands of Romagna. In the middle of the 6th century Dozza was included in the Byzantine possessions of Italy until the middle of the 8th century, when the Carolingians took possession of it. They donated to the Church of Imola the possession of the lands, which then became the site of the first fortification, which in 1150 became a free municipality. Alternate events have affected the dominion of the fortress and the village, passed several times from hand to hand among the powerful families of Bologna and Imola. To remember the five-year period of Caterina Sforza (1494-1499), during which the fortress was equipped with the imposing defensive walls that still surround it today. After the brief rule of Cesare Borgia (who in a few years annexed his dominions throughout Romagna), Dozza returned under the control of the Church. With the end of papal rule, Dozza was aggregated in Bologna. At the end of the Second World War, with the breakthrough of the Gothic Line, the village was the scene of some clashes between the allied forces, under whose command the fighting group "Folgore" operated, and the retreating German troops.
Dozza is made unique by the numerous paintings that embellish the facades of the houses and give it a characteristic appearance. The Biennale of the Painted Wall represents the most important manifestation of the village. Every September, for four days, famous national and international artists perform permanent works on the walls of houses, an open-air art gallery. For some years, Toscanella has also been involved in the event, which has been structured in two poles: in Dozza the murals and in Toscanella, graffiti and street art. The Sforza fortress, its museum and the sixteenth-century parish church dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin, which houses a sculptural lunette from the Longobard era and the Madonna and Child painting among the saints Giovanni Battista and Margherita (1492) by Forlì Marco Palmezzano.
In Toscanella, the church of Santa Maria del Carmine (1576), is also called the Sanctuary of the Madonna del Sabbioso, named after the stream that runs alongside it. Finally, inside the Sanctuary of the Madonna del Calanco, there is a bas-relief depicting the Blessed, made of whitish scagliola. Every year on the second Saturday before the day of Pentecost, the image of the Blessed Virgin is carried in procession to Dozza.