Satriano di Lucania (formerly Pietrafixa and then Pietrafesa) took this name only in 1887 to reinforce the historic ties with the ancient city of Satrianum, the ruins of which are located nearby. It was also added 'di Lucania' to distinguish it from the homonymous villages and strengthen the geographical meaning, because belonging to this historic region. In the Eighties became the capital of the murals of the Mezzogiorno, for the presence of more than 500 murals scattered on the walls of the historic center. It is the seat of the academy of the chili lucano, autochthonous spice of the valley of the Melandro, and gave finally the birthplace of the painter lucano of seventeenth century Giovanni De Gregorio.
The village is dominated by mount on which it stands today the ancient Norman tower of Satrianum. Develops on the slopes and the faldi three rocks: the Castle, the Piesco and the Madonna della Rocca, which lie above the shores of the river Melandro. From here passed along the route of the ancient via Herculea, roman road that acted as a link between the Via Appia and the Pompilia, enabling you to reach also places so interiors and rugged. At the bosco supports to the south of the country, there are some artificial lakes, where it is also possible to practice sports fishing.
The site of the ancient Satrianum always played a strategic position along the path that put in connection the ionian coast with Tyrrhenian coasts, a crossroads of peoples and cultures also very different between them. The phenomena of anthropization back to the Bronze Age, with a continuity of occupation of the territory that goes up to the Early Middle Ages. In the XII century abuts a phase of great importance of the site. In the XII century the ancient "Pietrafesa" stood on a rock called "Castle", and together with Satrianum was part of a unique countryside. Was the domain of the family Pietrafesa that assumed properly the name and made him autonomous from the county of Satrianum which subsequently, and for order of Queen Giovanna was attacked and destroyed in order to take revenge on people because of an affront immediately. Should be considered in this scenario of atrocities territorial and state-owned the strong contrast of people pietrafesano first against the nobles and the clergy and later against the new middle class of owners who was replaced to the domain of the rich feudal lords. In the meantime, the inhabited center continued to expand by bringing its boundaries beyond the shores of the river Melandro and by resting on the other two "rocks": the Piesco and Madonna della Rocca. This is the golden period of growth of the village in the middle of 1800 the population touched the 3000 inhabitants and despite earthquake of 7 years after the demographic aspect had not, fortunately, serious repercussions.
Certainly worth a visit the Museum of Peasant Civilisation, multimedia that 'the stage of colors', hosted at the Rocca Duke of Poggiardo and Pepem Fabuleum, multimedia exhibition dedicated to the chili pepper. The Murals also represent the true symbol of the village. Born in the last century, conditioned by the cultural heritage left by Giovanni De Gregorio, these true and own frescoes, are hand-painted and represent the culture and the traditions modern and advance of the small medieval village. The paintings deal with six different thematic lodgings: the cult of the saints made around the mother church; the colors of the valley along corso Trieste; biodiversity and archeology in facades that surround piazza Umberto I; the legend of the mop of Abbamonte; the ancient trades together with those relating to the life of the Pietrafesa, the painter who has had the natali precisely in town.
The satrianese Carnival is one of the carnivals of the Lucan tradition is celebrated through the three masks local typical: the hermit, the bear and the Lent. These figures are going around to ask for donations and gifts to the homes of the people throughout the period of Carnival. Are characterized by different behaviors from each other: the bear usa intimidate the loop with their bells and its tonnage while the hermit punzecchia annoyingly with his stick of brooms. Lent instead, character is certainly more passive in comparison to the other two, walk undisturbed for the streets of the town with a cradle on the foliage, to represent the carnival finished now. The event launches a message ecologist: re-establish a relationship ancient with ground based on respect. Everyone can join the carnival and for one day can become a Rumita or an inhabitant of the woods (goblin, fungus, leaf, wolf, etc.) without limits to the imagination and creativity.