Located in the heart of the Dolomiti Lucane, perched and protected from these imposing massifs of the sandstone rock that the wind and the rain have unceasingly dug in the course of time, Castelmezzano reveals itself in a manner quite unusual. To enter the country in fact we must pass through a tunnel dug in the rock, immediately after crossing a small groove. This spectacular location, was fundamental for the defense of the village in the course of the centuries, whose origin is given around the X century a.c. The name derives from the Castrum Medianum (literally median castle) built here by the Normans between the XI and XIII century a.c., and is so called because of its position with respect to those of the neighboring centers of Pietrapertosa and Brindisi Montagna. Of the castle are still visible the remains of the walls, a tank for the collection of rain water and the stairs carved into the rock that allowed access to the highest lookout point, from where it was possible to monitor the whole valley of the river Basento. The urban structure of Castelmezzano, typically medieval, is a rare example of a sustainable balance between natural components and human intervention. The village is in fact as an agglomerate of concentric houses with roofs of sandstone embedded in a rocky basin: constructions are inserted directly in the rock. There are numerous steep stairs that open between the alleys and that invite you to climb to the peaks overhanging and enjoy the wonderful views of the Dolomiti Lucane. The heart of the city life is Caizzo Square at the center of which stands the mother church of Santa Maria dell'Olmo with its majestic facade in Romanic style. Outside the country, paths, stairways and bridges in stone allow to reach the valley of Caperrino, characterized by the remains of old mills, built in dry and whose roofs are made with slabs of local stone, said "chiang" in the local dialect. Castelmezzano falls with its territory in the area of the Park of Gallipoli Cognato Dolomiti Lucane that offers in addition to the pristine beauty of the landscape, the traces of a millenary history for the presence of the megalithic walls of the settlement, named Croccia Cognato, of the IV century b.c.