Venosa (Venusia in Latin, Venòse in dialect lucano) is located in the Vulture region, in Basilicata. The origin of his name is to be found in the motive of his foundation, which has been made in honor of the goddess Venus. The traces found along with the remains of a Neolithic necropolis found in Toppo d'Aguzzo in Rapolla near the Venetian territory, certify the human presence in Venosa territory since prehistoric times. Much of these testimonies are found in Notarchiarico's "Paleolithic Park".
The town, probably founded by the Latin populations, was torn by the Romans to the Sannites in 291 BC. from the consul Lucio Postumio Megello, who made a Latin colony, where about 20,000 individuals moved. During the Second Punic War, in 208, the consul Marco Claudio Marcello died, attacked by Annibale during a reconnaissance. In 190 BC the foundation of Via Appia is the occasion for a strong development of the center and in the 89th c. received the title of Municipium (Roman city), obtaining the right to vote and citizenship for its inhabitants. In the 65th century AD, Quinto Orazio Flacco, one of the most illustrious poets of the ancient era, was born and lived in the town hall, and later emigrated to Rome. In 43 a.C. was subject to a new deduction from the triumphs, which expropriated the lands of the publicus, redistributing them among the veterans. With the imperial age, in the early days of the advent of Christianity (around 70 AD), Venosa became one of the first Jewish communities in Italy to integrate with the local population. A testimony to such coexistence is the hill of Maddalena, where both Semitic and Christian burials are located in its cavities. In 114 d.C. the Traiana route was opened, linking Benevento and Brindisi but that did not touch Venosa, leading to disadvantageous economic consequences for the city. With the fall of the Roman empire and the subsequent advent of the medieval era, Venosa was subjected to repeated occupations by barbarian populations from the fifth century.
In 476 the Odoacre Eruli invaded the town while the Ostrogots, in 493, turned it into an administrative, political and economic center, a title subsequently conferred on Acerenza. Between 570 and 590, the Longobards put it in a gastalded place; in 842 the city was sacked by the Saracens, who in turn were expelled from Ludwig II, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. The Byzantines followed, which were defeated during the battle of the Olivento River by the Normans of Arduino in 1041. During Norman rule Venosa was assigned to Drogone d'Altavilla. Also worth mentioning is the presence of the Greeks around 980 AD, witnessed by the monastery of "San Nicola di Morbano". In 1133, Venosa was plundered and given to the flames by Ruggero II of Sicily. With the coming of the Swabians, Frederick II built a castle, erected in a place where there was a Longobard Fort of the eleventh century. In 1232, Venus was born, the future emperor of Switzerland, Manfredi, son of Federico II and Bianca Lancia.
After a continuous joining of feudal lords, the city was granted a feud to the Orsini in 1453. After the Angevins, the Aragonese family of the Gesualdo family became independent, who in 1561 became Venosa's feudal lords and princes, making the city an important center of cultural, intellectual and artistic activities. It was during this time that Prince Charles, Gesualdo, was a musician among the most prestigious of his time but also among the most discussed; it is said that the composer has taken refuge in his fief by Gesualdo after murdering his wife (as well as cousin) Maria d'Avalos in Naples, for having betrayed him with Duke Andria, Fabrizio Carafa. In 1808, Venosa became the third city with more possessions of Basilicata, after Melfi and Matera, in addition to having active and passive rights in the Napoleonic National Parliament. In 1820, he had a small role in peasant domination and in carbon sequences. With the unification of Italy, in 1861, they were conquered by the brigands of Rionerese Carmine Crocco, who, after defeating the Venetian National Guard garrison, were welcomed and supported by the local population. During the occupation, Francesco Saverio Nitti, grandfather of the homonymous southernist, was killed.
It is worth visiting the Casa di Orazio, the Aragonese Castle (which houses the National Museum), the Jewish Catacombs, the Notarchi Archaeological Area and the Holy Trinity Complex with an adjacent archaeological park.