Corigliano d'Otranto (Choriàna Koriàna or in griko, Curiànu in Salento dialect) belongs to the historical region of the Grecìa Salentina, in Puglia. Belongs to a linguistic island of nine villages where it speaks griko, an ancient language of Greek origin.
The grecanico or griko (even grico) is a dialect (or group of dialects) type neo-Greek remainder probably of a wider and more continuous linguistic area ellenofona existed formerly in the coastal part of the Magna Grecia. The greeks today call the Katoitaliótika language (Greek: Κατωιταλιώτικα, Italian "Southern"). The language, written in Latin characters, has points in common with the neogreco and in the meantime the words that are the fruit of apparent influences leccesi or anyway romance. The name of the country is by assonance often derive from the word heart, symbol that appears in the civic coat of arms; or from Corelius, the centurion that would have been assigned the territory in roman times. While probably goes back to the Greek term medieval "χωρίον" (transliterated choríon), respectively at the end etymologically related "χώρα" (chóra), with the meaning of the village, country, Podere, ground or place.
The territory was inhabited by civilization proto-historic, as evidenced by the megalithic remains of mirrors, dolmens and menhirs. The foundation of the country is uncertain and could date back to the period of the Magna Grecia, the roman period or even to the pre-Roman period with the Messapi. From the Roman period remains the urban fabric of the historic center in which, between via Capiterra and via Cavour, is identifiable a rectangle structured living on lots corresponding to multiples or submultiples of the roman actus. The development of the small center contributed to the basilian Monastery of San Giorgio was built in the IX century and in which it was active a school of the Greek language and Byzantine culture which left many codes Greeks, now kept in important libraries. This declined at the end of XV century with the destruction of the monastery of San Nicola di Casole of Otranto, which constituted a Grancia. The first written document in which appears the name of Corigliano dates back to 1192. In 1465 it was purchased by the family de' Monti of French origin, arrived in these lands at the time of the Angevins. Nicola Antonio bought the feud directly from the Royal Court and upon his death in 1480, it passed to the firstborn son Francis, a man of arms, diplomatic and senior official of the court of Ferdinand II of Aragon. By Francesco the feud of Corigliano passed to his son Giovan Battista, which in 1534 obtained from the Emperor Charles V the title of marquis. Between 1514 and 1519, he strengthened the country and expanded considerably the castle equipping it with powerful artillery, four angular towers, as well as munitions and powerful defensive means. After Giovan Battista, in possession of the feud came, always from father to son, Francesco II from 1537 to 1557, John II from 1557 to 1594, Geronimo from 1594 to 1644 and Giorgio from 1644 to 1649; with Giorgio who died young, completes the marquisate of the de' Monti. Between 1649 and 1651 the feud passed first to the sister Giulia married Francesco Sanfelice and from these to his son Alfonso Sanfelice-de' Monti. In 1651, at the end of contrasts born in relation to the succession of Giorgio de' Monti, the entire inheritance is auctioned and purchased by the wealthy Baron Tutino Luigi Trane.
The Arco Lucchetti, site in Vico Freddo, delimits the inlet of a courtyard and is constituted by three monolithic elements in pietra leccese: an architrave in Sesto lowered well preserved and two uprights corroded in the lower half. The rich decoration of the portal occupies the entire front surface and that of the soffit of the arch. It was constructed in 1497 by the owner of the building, mastro Nicola Robi, who was also the author, as he himself declares in one of the inscriptions that there are engraved. The entire decoration of the arc is a throwback to the medieval models. The arc enters inside a court in which can be glimpsed Latin inscriptions of the sixteenth-century engraved on the lintels of the doors.
The agro coriglianese is mainly cultivated with olive groves. The high permeability of the soil, which absorbs most of the rainfall, determines the absence of surface water courses and the presence on the territory of the articles in order to overcome this shortage, such as tanks and pozzelle.
Along Via Moncenisio you can admire a secular and majestic copy Vallonea Oak (Quercus ithaburensis subs. macrolepis Kotschy), belonging to the family of fagacee and without doubt the arboreal species more suggestive of the flora of Salento. Characteristic of this arboreal species are large acorns from which anciently returns the tannin used, inter alia, in the tanning of hides and skins. It is one of the few surviving copies in Salento. The Oak of Corigliano has a diameter of the trunk of 1 meter and a crown of 20 meters, with a height of about 15 meters. In the grico dialect is known with the name of valani, from the Greek "Balanos" (acorn). The public garden in which it is located is seat, from some years, numerous events linked to culture grica, promoted by the Circolo Culturale "Argalìo" which has its seat in some local ancient constructed right under the crown of the great oak.