The village of Montecarlo stands on the hill of Cerruglio, that dominates the surrounding plains, on horseback between Lucca and the Valdinievole. It produces an oil of high quality wines in the PDO: the Montecarlo bianco and rosso di Montecarlo.
The original nucleus of Monaco was the village of Vivinaia, ancient property of the Dukes of Tuscia, who stood at the foot of the hill. In 1331 the town was devastated by the Florentines and the authorities lucchesi decided to reestablish the village on the top of the hill of the Cerruglio, where once stood the homonymous fortress. In 1333 the new village took the name of Monte Carlo in honor of the future Emperor Charles IV of Luxembourg, which had helped in Lucca to get rid of the Pisan occupation.
The fortress of Cerruglio played a strategic role in the wars of the XIV century between Lucca, Pisa and Florence and was from the fortress which Castruccio Castracani, lord of Lucca, directed his troops by bringing them to victory in the battle of Altopascio of 1325. The fortress was enlarged first by Paolo Guinigi, Lord of Lucca, and subsequently by the Florentines, especially from the grand-ducal government that, since 1437, had definitively Montecarlo under its control.
Monaco is also the birth place of Armando De Dominicis, pioneer of Italian aviation, to which the municipality in the year 2002 has dedicated the park of San Salvatore, by placing thereon a plaque to his name.
In addition to the visit of the Fortress of the Cerruglio, it is also advised that the Pieve di San Piero in Campo, in the hamlet of the same name.